The C-Fern (Ceratopteris richardii) Genome: Insights Into Plant Genome Evolution With the First Partial Homosporous Fern Genome Assembly D. Blaine Marchant Stanford University Emily B. Sessa University of Florida Paul G. Wolf Utah State University Kweon Heo Kangwon National University W. Brad Barbazuk University of Florida Pamela S. Soltis However, little is known about the whole genome sequences of ferns. The diploid human genome has 46 chromosomes (23 maternal and 23 paternal). Ceratopteris richardii, a diploid, homosporous fern has been advanced as a model fern system; however, the tenuous ability to transform the genome of this fern greatly limited its usefulness as a model organism. Ceratopteris richardii Hn-n (M.Whitten #5841) Transcriptome. To investigate the role of polyploidy in fern genome evolution, and to provide permanent genetic resources for this neglected group, we constructed a high-resolution genetic linkage map of the homosporous fern model species, Ceratopteris richardii (n = 39). Ferns were the last major lineage of land plants without a reference genome. Ceratopteris richardii (ferns) genome assembly CFernv1.1 from University of Florida [GCA_009866685.1 ] The life cycle of the fern Ceratopteris richardii. Genomic resources in ferns are limited to one genetic map of the homosporous fern Ceratopteris richardii (Nakazato, Jung, Housworth, Rieseberg, & Gastony, 2006) and modest EST data sets (Der, Barker, Wickett, dePamphilis, & Wolf, 2011; Salmi, Bushart, Stout, & Roux, 2005; Yamauchi et al., 2005). With the coming publication of the Ceratopteris genome assembly and recent publication of two water fern genomes, it is time to review the past and future applications of Ceratopteris and fern research. Ferns, being vascular yet seedless, present unparalleled opportunities to investigate important questions regarding the evolution and development of land plants. The Ceratopteris richardii genome contains no more than two copies of LFY (Figure 1—figure supplement 2; indicated by *). The fern Ceratopteris richardii is an important model for studies of sex determination and gamete differentiation in homosporous plants. Since the 1980s, the aquatic fern Ceratopteris richardii has been used as a model organism for genetic and developmental studies.Recently, a draft whole genome for the species was completed. Sample from Mixed Tissue Pool Using the model homosporous fern Ceratopteris richardii, loci encoding ribosomal RNA sequences (rDNA genes) were detected using fluorescent in situ hybridization. Here I delve into the utilization of a Ceratopteris genome assembly for studying the alternation of … At least two major rDNA loci were visible in all cases, and six or more weakly hybridizing signals were … The divergence between eusporangiate and leptosporangiate ferns is indicated by arrows. Cells that are diploid are 2n. Different taxonomic clades within the fern lineage are denoted by different colours, as shown. Ceratopteris richardii [9, 24]. Here we use RNA-seq to de novo assemble a transcriptome and identify genes differentially expressed in young gametophytes as their sex is determined by the presence or absence of the male-inducing pheromone called antheridiogen. From gametophyte to sporophyte development The prothallus is the green-heart shaped gametophyte. Recent improvement in technology , such as transcriptome sequencing, has allowed for a relatively Plants without a reference genome, as shown richardii is an important model for studies of determination. 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