i.e. Set these clauses off with a comma. Read more about commas in lists. : from the Latin phrase id est, “that is.” Used in English to restate a previous word or expression: “He really enjoys a good bildungsroman, i.e., coming-of-age novel.”, e.g. Americans don’t speak English so would they please stop writing this kind of misspelled rubbish: “The consensus seems to be in favor [favour] of the comma in American usage; against it in British [English]usage.” If you are too lazy to invent your own language, stop abusing ours – please! <- Best There is only one English language and Americans neither speak it nor understand it. I came through a sentence that comma precedes "in which," but I have heard that no comma precedes "which" that has a preposition before it. and e.g. Or would you rather we throw off the English language altogether, and thus relegate the English language to being spoken only by 1/100 of the world’s population instead of its current 1/5? I like animals, i.e., dogs. ), For my own part, can I ask for people to consider the above variations in the advice of Chicago, AP, and Penguin writing guides, and REJECT them? I … Put simply, a clause is the core building block of a sentence. “whether a comma follows [e.g.] Cats and dogs. Main Takeaways: Place a comma before which when which precedes a nonrestrictive clause. Non-restrictive clause and phrases don’t change the sentence meaning if they are left out. If you get confused about when you should use a comma before the word “including,” you’re certainly not alone. should be followed by a comma. The Penguin Writer’s Manual (British) shows both i.e. without a following comma. @Peg In which case it needs commas before and after (because it's an optional parenthetical clause). Ex:The camel stood outside the gates, but I was on the inside of the city. phrase occurs in a running text (i.e., not enclosed in parenthesis). The term means “in other words” and not “for example.”, I like sports, .e.g., baseball, basketball, and tennis. I drove the car home as it was snowing. The last example above is a real example from a newspaper. Put a comma after one of those bad boys to separate it from a complete thought. –> The phrase after [i.e.] A nonrestrictive clause is a phrase that adds non-essential information to a sentence without changing the overall meaning. A reader wants to know if the abbreviations i.e. Comma before as? The Chicago Manual of Style favors the Oxford comma because it prevents ambiguity, especially if the last element in a list is a pair joined with “and,” such as “macaroni and cheese.”. Whether or not you put a comma before and depends on how you’re using and. e.g. Experts are often divided on the issue. In the example above, if you don’t use a comma after “Ted,” the reader will momentarily misread it as “John left with Ted and Mary . : from the Latin phrase exempli gratia, “for the sake of the example.” In English, it means “for example” and is used to introduce one or more examples: “I like animals, e.g. The key to understanding commas here is to figure out whether the clause beginning with “where” contains information that is essential or nonessential to make sense of the whole sentence. We are sick and tired of your ignorant abuse of what is and always be our language. There is also a prescriptive rule in American English, commonly quoted as “‘which’ can only be … There is a comma before the conjunction (but), and the nonessential comment (in the end) is set off with a pair of commas. Don’t place a comma before which when which is part of a prepositional phrase. It would so please the English whose language it is, if everyone else stopped pretending that whatever language they are using which varies in any way from English, is not something else entirely. Let’s reject that utterly foundationless dictatorship as well: the manuals and guides did not invent the language, they shouldn’t be trying to force it into meaningless pigeon-holes just because they feel an urge. (Not to mention the fact that “English” is the descendant of several distinct languages, including those of Angles, Saxons, Romans, and Normans. Some parts of this site work best with JavaScript enabled. Many of these had existing original peoples with their own languages, but English became the primary language of (most) of them anyway. ), Copyright © 2020 Daily Writing Tips . or e.g. Let's examine it in more detail. I like deserts. I had not been aware it was even an option not to use a comma. Examples of the comma before … She is very noisy, but she’s also very smart. In this example, “the man” could be anyone. Adding or not adding a comma is largely a grammatical preference. i.e. Or rather, reject their dictatorial tone and posture about the matter? Sorry, Peg. Don’t recall being corrected. I like baseball, i.e., a popular sport in the U.S. involving batting a ball and running bases. If a clause can stand on its own and doesn’t rely on the rest of the sentence for meaning, then it’s an independent clause. There are some rare exceptions though, where the ‘Oxford comma’ must be used. Let’s take a look at the following examples: The dress is expensive, but it is gorgeous. 3. If there is an ampersand in the sentence, there is a comma before the ampersand, such as in a citation (in APA format): Ex: Colonies of ants have long held a distinct position in ecclesiastical art (Reuben, Johnson, & Carlyle). Here are two examples of how AP might treat the need for a comma before and from the blog … I like animals. I tend to believe that whatever you suggest about using a comma with “e.g.”, you need not have the same advice for “i.e.”. dogs. I will be working in the private sector because jobs will be abundant in the private sector where growth takes a central role. In this sentence, the reader could easily misread this to mean your parents are the Queen and the Prime Minister of England. Instead, I would simply use the comma rule that says that when the first part of a sentence is a complete sentence in itself, and it is followed by a phrase that is not a complete sentence, no comma … Example: Finally, I went to the beach. The Gregg Reference Manual, Tribute Edition 11, page 383. Yet it is hardly realistic to think that the settlement of the English language into Belize was identical to the settlement of English into Ireland. Your writing, at its best I don't think that the word 'before' governs the use of commas in the sentences you provide. In certain cases, you can skip the comma when introducing a quotation. If the clause is left out, the sentence still has the same meaning. Standard American English is as valid as the standard dialect you speak in Britain. should be “confined to parentheses and notes and followed by a comma.”, The AP Stylebook, whose “punctuation-pitch” leans generally to the side of “the fewer commas the better,” is pro-comma when it comes to i.e. Of course there are different versions of English. Writers tend to make this mistake when forming sentences in which as separates two independent clauses.. Below is an example of such a sentence. Will check Chicago Manual. I don’t think there needs to be a hard and fast rule. You will improve your English in only 5 minutes per day, guaranteed! Therefore, a comma is required before "who.") I.e. 2. Comma Before Parenthesis. 2. This is when if you don’t use the comma, the meaning of the sentence changes. : just like this. Almost everyone has an opinion on serial comma use, often referred to as the Oxford comma. dogs, cats, and horses.”. @Shing, your use of [i.e.] Dogs. You cannot use the punctuation rules of your native language when you write in English – you must use English rules. I like animals. That part only needs to be "set off" by commas if it's been moved to somewhere other than its natural position. Telling us Yanks (and all the others) to stop using the term “English” for the language YOU imposed is pretty ridiculous. (For the most part I will normally assume that the periods that are part of the “e.g.” serve sufficiently in the way a comma would to induce a pause, but that need not be an absolute rule.). If there is an ampersand in the sentence, there is a comma before the ampersand, such as in a citation (in APA format): Ex:Colonies of ants have long held a distinct position in ecclesiastical art (Reuben, Johnson, & Carlyle). The consensus seems to be in favor of the comma in American usage; against it in British usage. And the dialect you speak is no more THE English than the ones that Shakespeare, Chaucer, or King Alfred spoke and wrote. Use commas after introductory words. There are two schools of thought on how best to lighten the punctuation of such a sentence. Oxford commas are also known as serial or Harvard commas. Fowler’s advice actually makes the most sense. (And Chicago’s advice to confine its use to parentheses is silly, yet another instance of rule-makers trying to relegate perfectly ordinary English to second-class citizenship for the goal of reducing us to the lowest common denominator. In other words if the clause is omitted, the meaning of the sentence changes. Example: When I was younger, I had a cat named Whiskers the … really gets up our collective nose. Henceforward, in my own usage, I will tilt it toward using the comma, or not using it, depending on the work itself and pitch most suited to it, and to heck with the Manuals. I also like plants. Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Therefore, there should be a comma before "who." I will defy the Manuals, including in situations where I am writing for an organization that claims it follows one of them. The clause "who live in the same village as us" is just additional information about Sarah's parents. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Commas may be placed after the closing parenthesis but not before either the opening or the closing parenthesis. There is not “only one English language.” English is a collection of dialects spoken throughout the world. Again, when it is used as an adverb, you don’t use a comma. I like animals, e.g., dogs, cats, and horses. A comma is a form of punctuation that indicates a pause in a sentence and separates items in a list. E.g., therefore, is the one that means “for example.”, On the other hand, instead of e.g., you can write “for example,” and for i.e., you can write “namely” or “in other words.”. Writers will sometimes disagree on when to use a comma or omit one; to help you as you write, here are a few general rules for using commas. Remember, place a comma before the word, but only when you are connecting two independent clauses. For example “What the king dreams,” [Ned] said, “the Hand builds.” “Bran,” [Jon] said, “I’m sorry I didn’t come before.” When to Skip the Comma. The example in the article was: “He really enjoys a good bildungsroman, i.e., coming-of-age novel.”, @Stepahnie and @Shing, As a British native speaker, may I inform you that the Latin abbreviation, i.e., does not mean “in other words” or “for example.” It means: “that is (to say).” The Latin abbreviation, e.g., means “for example.” Furthermore, viz., means “namely.” I hope that helps . Many writers (even good ones) forget to put a comma before the word as when one is needed (or they use a comma when they shouldn’t). In the following examples, the independent clauses appear in brackets: 1. Commas should be used before and when joining two independent clauses or when compiling a list. Commas before as can be more tricky. Parentheses are used to give additional information to the reader—information that would disrupt the flow of the sentence if written as a nonrestrictive clause. I like animals, e.g. Putting a comma before “that” is a very common mistake: WRONG The claimant’s attorney stated, that his client was unable to attend the hearing.… Cakes and cookies. I like animals, i.e. Adding a comma after “Queen” makes each of the items clearly distinct. Even though the Oxford Comma is named after the Oxford University Press (who still use it), most Brits do not use an Oxford Comma. and e.g. Don’t use a comma before the conjunction when the second clause can’t stand alone. Thanks for this! As with so many matters of punctuation, the writer’s best practice is to choose a style reference and follow its recommendations. Both are correct, as commas must be used after every clause, except the one that comes before ‘and’. Ex:They are going to the store with my sister, brother, and cousin. .” and then have to reread the sentence to understand what the writer actually intended. Before we examine the question of comma usage and the word “who,” it’s important to understand a little bit more about the way sentences are put together. when the i.e. The serial comma is the comma before the last “and” in a series: red, white, and blue. Commas can separate adjectives, offset nonessential phrases, and introduce direct quotations. I.e. According to The Gregg Reference Manual, always insert a comma after i.e. It’s almost always optional to put a comma before and in a list. A comma before LLC is not a requirement as far as state LLC registration is concerned. Here’s a general rule for using the comma correctly: Focus on how the reader will interpret your meaning, and eliminate any possible ambiguity. (Notice how I used it as an adverb in the preceding sentence.) In principle, I guess could be placed within the main clause - for example, There's always, I guess, a trade-off. Without a common agreement in place, using a comma or not using it is acceptable. If you have trouble remembering which means “in other words” and which means “for example,” you can use a mnemonic to keep them apart, or you can avoid using them altogether. In short, you only need to use a comma before “where” if the information that follows it is not essential to proper understanding of the whole sentence. should just be avoided. The conjunction must split the third item of a list. If you read plenty of formally published material (that has been carefully edited), you will see that there is no definitive way “e.g.” is ACTUALLY used (whether with or without a comma), and indeed there is no special necessity that drives one answer or the other. In fact, you use two commas. Style guides do not agree on whether or not a comma should follow both these abbreviations. I will be working in the private sector because jobs will be abundant in the private sector, where growth takes a central role. and e.g. Correct comma usage is an art, not a science. In fact, if you think of the actual meaning of the phrase it stands for, it would be very odd indeed if one were to use “that is (to say)” without both the leading and trailing comma (when used inline). Comma before and in AP style. Omitting a serial comma can create ambiguity: Ex:I had lunch with my parents, the Queen and the Prime Minister of England. Subscribers get access to our archives with 800+ interactive exercises! The two terms are frequently mixed up. Notice the difference in the following two sentences. Perhaps I’ve overedited on this point on occasion. The phrase after [e.g.] The comma before a conjunction in a list is known as an an Oxford Comma or a serial comma. is incorrect in the examples you gave. Use commas to offset appositives from the rest of the sentence. In some circumstances, you may use a comma before a conjunction such as "and" when it starts a dependent clause. [We rented lodging for our ski trip to Utah in Ma… I applaud Shameem’s clarification that “i.e.” stands for “id est” which technically means “that is”, as in “that is to say…”. Here we know who the man is—John—and so the clause simply tells you more about John. An independent clause—also known as a main clause—is a group of words that comprises a subject and a verb and that can stand alone as a sentence. I have seen various books from 19th C or before which regularly include the comma after 'and' in a list. A compound sentence is one that contains two or more independent clauses joined by one or more coordinating conjunctions—most commonly, and. I am English and this nonsense of putting a period and a comma after either i.e. Use a Comma After an Introductory Word or Phrase. Office of Graduate Studies1100 Seaton HallLincoln NE 68588-0619graduate@unl.eduPhone: 402-472-2875Fax: 402-472-0589More contact info. Of the 1.5 billion English speakers around the world, Britain comprises just over 66.4 million of them. AP is a journalistic style, so it is focused on brevity, but it also needs to ensure accuracy, so it leaves the decision up to editors. With a little bit of practice, you’ll begin using commas like a pro! . E.g. Today, such a sentence is considered over-punctuated. The Chicago Manual of Style states that i.e. A dependent clause, however, requires the rest of the sentence to give it meaning. According to AP, both abbreviations are “always followed by a comma.”. defines the noun it follows. These examples and the rules they’re based upon are drawn from the 16th edition of the Chicago Manual of Style, one of the core texts on proper language usage and formatting. As you know, unless the sentence is very short, a comma does come before "but" when it introduces the second independent clause. You'll also get three bonus ebooks completely free. The restrictive clause “provides information…essential to the meaning of the sentence” (6.22). E.g. As for the comma before "but" – in your sentence I think it is preferable because it makes for easier reading. [Miguel took piano lessons for sixteen years], and [today he is an accomplished performer]. In other words, there is virtually never a comma before “that”, unless there is some other reason to use a comma, such as another non-essential subordinate clause ending there. It’s the information that specifies it’s not just any man, but the one who is coming to dinner, that lets us know who the man is. So if one abbreviates the “that is” by the “i.e.”, then meaning-wise the sentence ought to require the use of the comma before “i.e.”; the only question is whether the periods that punctuate it as an abbreviation suffice for the purpose of the comma following it. and e.g. That comma is optional. It’s … However, in almost all uses, “in other words” is a reasonable functional equivalent for “that is”. There’s no single rule that applies to all situations. That last comma before the “and” is called a serial comma, Oxford comma, or Harvard comma. and e.g. Roses. They do all agree that a comma precedes i.e. You usually put a comma before and when it’s connecting two independent clauses. I … Some people say to always use it and other people say to only use it when leaving … Fowler, in his venerable Modern English Usage, opines that. So if one abbreviates the “that is” by the “i.e.”, then meaning-wise the sentence ought to require the use of the comma before “i.e.”; the only question is whether the periods that punctuate it as an abbreviation suffice for the purpose of the comma following it. Like because, as can be used as a conjunction or as an adverb. This is when you are using the comma as an Oxford comma (sometimes known as a serial comma). To carry on with what Noah said: The English colonized or conquered Ireland, Scotland, Kenya, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, the U.S., Belize and British New Guinea. The other 1.43 billion English speakers do not agree with your assessment that YOUR English is THE English. When a word or phrase forms an introduction … There was a time when this sentence would be punctuated exactly this way. or not is indifferent, or rather is decided by the punctuation-pitch of the writer of the passage. It’s common to use … A simple mnemonic that helps many writers is the fact that the word example begins with the letter e. For example, take this sentence: lists examples of the sports I like but does not define the word “sports” or the phrase “I like sports.”. The word can be used as part of a nonrestrictive phrase, restrictive phrase, or prepositional phrase, and it can be used as an interrogative word. Appositives act as synonyms for a … Use a comma before the conjunction when the sentence halves can stand alone. All Right Reserved, The Difference Between "will" and "shall". UNL web framework and quality assurance provided by the, Visit the University of Nebraska–Lincoln, Apply to the University of Nebraska–Lincoln, Give to the University of Nebraska–Lincoln, Using Commas Correctly: Punctuating with Confidence. Application of Hennig’s winnow therefore supported a different cladogram , in which tarantulas and their allies (Mygalomorphae) are more closely related to typical spiders (Araneomorphae) than they are to the Liphistiidae. dogs, cats, and horses. Use a pair of commas in the middle of a sentence to set off clauses, phrases, and words that are … Different languages have different rules about how to use commas. These clauses are not set off by commas: Ex: The man who was coming to dinner was Sidney Poitier. Use a comma after the conjunction when it is followed by an interruption. :-O. I always use a colon as you did in your initial examples, e.g. <– Clearest if in-line. This tricky English-language comma rule—worthy of its own article—confuses people because proper punctuation depends on the context of the sentence. Of those four uses, you’ll only need to use a comma before the word “which” at the beginning of a nonrestrictive phrase and in certain direct questions. Are not set off by commas if it 's been moved to somewhere other than its position. With JavaScript enabled on occasion one of those bad boys to separate it a... Choose a style Reference and follow its recommendations largely a grammatical preference “ sports or!, page 383 which is part of a prepositional phrase a sentence and separates items in a.! By commas if it 's been moved to somewhere other than its natural.... That would disrupt the flow of the city nor understand it the one that two! English language. ” English is a reasonable functional equivalent for “ that ”... Using a comma after an Introductory word or phrase when it is gorgeous ’ ve on! And ’ in favor of the sports i like sports. ” may use comma. The conjunction must split the third item of a list using and ‘ Oxford comma or. @ Shing, your use of [ i.e. of them the sentence” 6.22. A conjunction or as an adverb, you can skip the comma when introducing a quotation very! Additional information to the store with my sister, brother, and introduce direct quotations the... Commas can separate adjectives, offset nonessential phrases, and introduce direct quotations “provides information…essential to the beach this. Your writing, at its best use a comma before the conjunction when the sentence.... You should use a comma should follow both these abbreviations take a look at the following,... Except the one that comes before ‘ and ’ each of the sports i like baseball, i.e. not. Always insert a comma after one of them i.e., not enclosed in parenthesis ) sector where. Conjunction or as an adverb, you can skip the comma before which when which is part a. Nonsense of putting a period and a comma before and in a sentence. conjunction. Use the comma as an Oxford comma fast rule reject their dictatorial tone and posture about matter... Know if the clause is the core building block of a list either. But does not define the word 'before ' governs the use of commas the! Is as valid as the Oxford comma ’ must be used if written as a conjunction such as and!: the camel stood outside the gates, but she ’ s best is! Fowler, in almost all uses, “ in other words if the is. Abbreviations i.e. is ” always optional to put a comma after an Introductory word or phrase needs! Day, guaranteed AP, both abbreviations are “ always followed by an interruption i will be abundant in same! An an Oxford comma the standard dialect you speak is no more English... And phrases don’t change the sentence to give it meaning Shing, your of. An option not to use a comma before `` who. '' in 5! On whether or not adding a comma is a phrase that adds non-essential to! If they are left out ' governs the use of commas in the sentences you provide a style Reference follow... Man who was coming to dinner was Sidney Poitier is to choose a style Reference and follow its...., opines that you did in your initial examples, the Difference Between `` will '' comma before i `` shall.! Dependent clause, except the one that contains two or more independent clauses by... Of what is and always be our language the sentence changes you should use a comma after i.e..., at its best use a colon as you did in your initial,... Outside the gates, but it is used as a conjunction or as an adverb in the following examples the. But does not define the word, but she ’ s best practice to! Before a conjunction or as an adverb information…essential to the meaning of the sentence. where i am English this!